188bet网址:中国旅游业的目标重构与动能转换_188bet
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188bet网址:中国旅游业的目标重构与动能转换
    2018-9-5 13:47:18     字号:[    ]

  9 月8-10日,世界旅游联盟在浙江省杭州市召开联盟年会、理事会及“湘湖对话”等系列活动,旨在搭建全球旅游业互联互通、共享共治的国际平台。 


  为体现联盟“旅游让世界和生活更美好”的宗旨,服务联盟 “旅游促进和平、旅游促进发展、旅游促进减贫”的使命要求, 结合当前世界旅游业可持续发展主题,强调旅游业反哺社会的责任与担当,2018“湘湖对话”主题确定为“减贫与发展,世界旅游业的共同责任”。


  经部领导批准,188bet网址院长出席会议并发布了《世界旅游发展报告2018——旅游促进减贫的全球进程与时代诉求》,在“专题对话:旅游减贫与发展“环节,发表主题演讲:中国旅游业的目标重构与动能转换。演讲全文如下:




  女士们,先生们,

  下午好!


  中国市场化意义上的旅游业与改革开放同时起步,接待外国人、港澳同胞、台湾同胞和海外华人华侨,以获得经济建设所急需要的外汇收入。受益长达三十年的“封闭红利”,处于卖方市场态势的中国旅游业需要解决的重点问题是供给短缺,而不是需求不足。无论自然资源、人文资源,还是航空、酒店和汽车等接待资源,乃至导游、翻译等人力资源,都由体制内的条条框框所控制。因此,上个世纪八十年代到九十年代中期的旅游发展主要指导思想只能是“政府主导、适度超前”,事实上,行政资源的释放和公共机构的参与是这一时期旅游经济发展的主要动力。


  从八十年代末到九十年代初,为了应对入境旅游市场增幅放缓,以及总需求特别是消费需求不足的挑战,中国开始探索开始发展国内旅游。受益于双周末、“黄金周”、带薪休假等假日制度的优化与完善,“人口红利”被有效释放了出来。随着社会主义市场的建立与完善,国家、地方、集体、个人和外商投资旅游业的热情空前高涨。尽管仍然强调旅游为国家战略服务,强调旅游消费和投资的经济功能,但是市场取代行政,成为旅游业发展的主要动力。


  伴随着国民参与旅游活动的普及化和日常性、旅游经济体量与综合影响力的扩大,旅游业在2009年底被赋予前所未有双定位:国民经济的战略性支柱产业和人民群众更加满意的现代服务业。这意味着中央政府既要求旅游业从更高的政治站位服务于国家战略,又要求旅游业着眼于广大游客对服务品质和发展质量的合理诉求。为了“迎接正在兴起的大众旅游时代”,更好地呼应全域旅游发展新格局,资本和技术开始以更大力度进入旅游业。旅游业也因此成为大众创业、万众创新最为活跃的领域之一,更为直观的说法是“”创业照耀旅游的星空”。


  女士们,先生们,

  中国特色社会主义进入新时代以后,社会主要矛盾已经转化为人民日益增长的美好生活需要和发展不平衡不充分之间的矛盾。习近平总书记代表中国共产党人和中国政府庄严承诺,“永远把人民对美好生活的向往作为奋斗目标”。国家机构改革中新组建的文化和旅游部,肩负着推进文化事业、文化产业和旅游业融合发展的重任。在这个伟大的时代背景下,我们有必要重新思考当代旅游发展的理念、目标和动能,以美好生活链接188bet和旅游发展,以大数据链接资源供给和市场需求,以充满生机的新型市场主体满足主客共享的美好生活需要。


  美好生活既包括丰衣足食的基本需求,也包括诗与远方的精神追求。在解决了温饱问题和住房、汽车等物质保障之后,文化、休闲、旅游等精神层次的追求开始变得重要起来。“吃有肉、住有楼,还有闲钱去旅游”是老百姓对小康社会的朴素理解。“世界那么大,我想去看看”“生活不止是眼前的苟且,还有诗和远方的田野”则是年轻一代的城市白领对远方风景和美好生活的无限向往与现实呐喊。当恩格尔系数稳步下降,非物质需求日渐上升,旅游成为老百姓日常生活不可或缺的刚性需求的时候,如下观点就获得了越来越多的社会共识:不能让卫星上天、航母下海的国家就不是强大的国家,而不能让民众安宁地阅读、看戏、欣赏音乐和自由旅行的国家也不是文明的国家。


  美好生活是188bet的宗旨,也是旅游发展的目标。如果更多的人可以在日常生活中走图书馆、博物馆等公共文化场所,可以欣赏高质量的戏曲、音乐、舞蹈艺术,可以参与开放性的读书分享、群众文化和非物质文化遗产的传承等终身学习和美的教育活动,文学艺术的日常教化功能就会不可逆转地显现出来。从世界范围内看,文化氛围深厚的国家、城市和乡村,往往也是游客喜欢到访并给予好评的旅游目的地。无论任何时候,任何地方,“人都是最美丽的风景”。目前,188bet虽然取得了长足进展,但是公共文化空间还没有成为人民群众的日常生活场景,也没有真正嵌入到“美丽中国旅游梦”的现实体系。当且仅当文化成为每个人的自觉追求,并且是日常生活不可或缺的组成部分,188bet才有生生不息的内在动力,文化自信才有的取之不竭的源头活水。


  美好生活是小康社会和188bet的新追求,也是旅游产业发展的新动能。188bet对国内60座城市和海外27个国家和地区连续四十个季度监测结果表明:那些经济社会发展水平高、文化艺术氛围深厚的旅游目的地,不论是接待游客数量、旅游收入、企业利润,还是游客满意度评价,都远高于那些经济欠发达、社会欠发展、公共188bet不完善的地方。好的旅游目的地需要空间拓展,更需要内容创造,从而让游客在主客共享的生活场景中通过深度体验以增强获得感。商业环境、国民休闲和文化品质所构成的美好生活,为旅游目的地建设、形象培育、宣传推广和市场主体建设提供了全新的发展动力。文化和旅游融合发展,让中国旅游业从美丽风景的1.0阶段,走向美好生活的2.0阶段。


  旅游经济发展的动能正在由传统资源,转向文创、科技和资本驱动的新业态和新模式。归根到底,中国旅游业可持续发展离不开市场主体的创业创新。旅游景区、旅行社和星级饭店的传统业态如何升级?主题公园、文化场景、旅行服务、定制旅行、民宿客栈、共享交通等新业态怎么导入?低空旅游、避暑旅游、健康旅游、研学旅行等新需求如何培育?以及,如何通过大数据引导旅游投资机构和运营商,把更多的资源和精力投入到原始创新、内容创造和品质提升上去?为了人民对旅行过程中的美丽风景和美好生活的向往,我愿意与各位一起努力,共同探索文化和旅游融合发展的新未来。



Ladies and Gentlemen,

Good afternoon.

China’s market-driven tourism began simultaneously with the reform and opening-up. By welcoming tourists of foreigners, patriots from Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, as well as overseas Chinese, tourism acquired foreign exchange which was urgent for China’s economic construction. Benefiting from the “enclosure dividend” for thirty years, the major problem of China tourism, which is in the seller’s market, is the shortage in supply side, not in demand. All kinds of tourism resources, ranging from natural resources, civil resources, to reception resources, such as aviation, hotel and automobile, and even human resources including guides and interpreters, are controlled by the regulations of systems. Therefore, the main guiding method of tourism in 1980s to the mid of 1990s was “Guiding by the government, Advancing in moderate scale”. As a matter of fact, the release of administrative resource and the participation of public organization is the major driving force of tourism economy development. 


From the end of 1980s to the beginning of 1990s, in order to deal with the slowing down of inbound tourism market expansion, and the challenge of inadequate demand, especially the consumption demand, China began to explore the development of domestic tourism. Benefiting from the optimization and perfection of vacation system, including two-day weekend, “golden week”, and paid vacation, etc, the demographic dividend was effectively released. Along with the establishment and perfection of socialism market, the investment in tourism by the state and local government, groups, individuals and foreigners was outburst. Although tourism still served a national strategic function and the economic function of tourism consumption and investment were emphasized, the market replaced administration, and became the main driving force of tourism industry development. 


Owing to the popularity and ordinariness of people participating tourism activities, as well as the economic scale and expansion of comprehensive influence, tourism was given, unprecedented, a dual positioning at the end of 2009: the strategic pillar industry of national economy and modern service industry to satisfy the masses. Such positioning means that the central government plans to make the tourism industry a strategic pillar for economy and a modern service sector to meet people’s growing travel needs. Investment and technology rushed into tourism industry to “welcome the emerging mass tourism times” and to meet the new structure of all-for-one tourism. Tourism industry now becomes one of the most attractive fields for the mass entrepreneurship and innovation, in which a more direct expression is that “business startups shine in the sky of tourism”.


Ladies and gentlemen,

By entering the new era of socialism of Chinese characteristics, the major contradiction of the society has converted to the contradiction between the unbalanced and inadequate development and people’s ever growing need for a better life. On behalf of Chinese Communist Party and the Chinese government, President Xi Jinping has made a solemn commitment that the aspirations of the people to live a better life must always be the focus of our efforts. The newly established Ministry of Culture and Tourism is taking the responsibility of promoting the comprehensive development of culture undertakings, culture industry and tourism industry. In such a great era, it is necessary to re-consider the notion, goals and drivers of present tourism development. We need to development culture construction and tourism development for the purpose of a better life pursuit, we need to connect the resource supply and market demand through big data technology, we need to establish a new type of market to satisfy the requirement for a better life of both customers and service providers.


A better life asks for not only basic requirement, such as well-fed and well-clothed, but also spiritual pursuit. When the subsistence problems are solved and the physical guarantees are achieved, culture, leisure, travel and other spiritual desires are emerging. “While eat well and live well, we still have money to travel well.” is a simple understanding for the well-off society. “The world is full of wonder and I’d like to wander.” And “Live a more than desultory life, open arms to poems and distant lands.” are the aspiration for sightseeing afar and better life of white-collars living in the cities. With the stable slowdown of Engel Coefficient, non-physical demand begins to rise, and travel has now become an indispensable solid demand of people’s daily life. The following idea is now gaining acknowledgement: a country which can’t launch satellite and build aircraft carriers is not a powerful country, a country which can’t enable people to read books, to watch dramas, to enjoy music and to travel free is not a civilized country.


A better life is the purpose for culture construction, and the goal for tourism development. When more people read in the library, visit the museum, watch high-quality drama, music and dance, participate in the lifelong learning and educational activities, such as reading sharing, mass culture, the inheritance of intangible cultural heritage and etc, the daily cultivation function of literature and art are irreversible aroused. In a global perspective, countries, cities and villages which have profound cultural deposit, are also popular among tourists. Whenever and wherever, “people are the most beautiful view”. At present, although the cultural construction has achieved encouraging progress, the public cultural space has not yet entered the daily life and not yet embedded in the physical system of the “Dream of Beautiful Tourism China”. Only when culture becomes a self-conscious pursuit of everyone and an indispensable part of daily life, the cultural construction has then achieved its inner drivers, and cultural self-confidence has its continuous sources.


A better life is the new pursuit of well-off society and cultural construction, as well as the new driver of tourism industry development. The continues monitoring statistics on 60 Chinese cities and 27 overseas countries and regions for 40 seasons conducted by China Tourism Academy shows that the tourists number, tourism income, company profit and tourists satisfaction rate of tourism destinations, which enjoy high level of social and economic development and profound cultural and artistic deposits, are much more higher than those which are underdeveloped in social, economy and cultural construction. A good tourism destination needs to expand both in space content so that customers and service providers can reinforce the sense of achievement by in depth experience in sharing living surroundings. A better life consisting of high-quality business environment, leisure and culture atmosphere provides a fresh new driver for the tourism destination construction, image cultivation, promotion and market construction. The convergence development of culture and tourism enable China tourism upgrade from V1.0 of beautiful sightseeing to V2.0 of better life.


The driver of tourism economic development is now transferring from traditional resources to new industries and models powered by cultural innovation, technology and capital. In conclusion, the sustainable development of China tourism industry depends on market-oriented innovation and business startups. What should we do to upgrade the traditional businesses, such as tourist attractions, travel agencies and star hotels? How should we import new types of business, such as theme parks, cultural sceneries, travel services, customized travels, guesthouses and shared transportations? How should we do to cultivate new demands including low-altitude travel, summer travel, health travel and study travel? And how should we put more resources and energies into original innovation, content creation and quality upgrade by directing tourism investment organizations and operators through big data technology? I’d like to work with you all to fulfill people’s need for beautiful views and better life during travel, and to explore the new future of the convergence development of culture and tourism. 


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